The terms Security Guard and Security Officer, when used, can have very different meanings. The term “Security Guard” is sometimes used to denote a guard who holds a particular position or patrols a particular area, but has limited independent judgment. The “Security Officer” can be used to indicate a professional who has a wider range of duties and exercises more independent judgment. He or she may be responsible for supervising many security guards and responding quickly to incidents. In modern times, some organizations seek to have a security officer with increased levels of professionalism and training.
Licensing services, however, do not make the same distinctions between the terms “security guard” and “security officer”. Many of them use the terms alternatively. Some prefer a specific term. For example, they often avoid the word “officer” because citizens may confuse security officers with police officers.
Different levels of responsibility
Licensing bodies often recognize different levels of responsibility, but use different vocabulary. The persons employed in the provision of security services can be referred to either as guards or as officers. Some countries use the term “employee” when referring to them. These individuals are simply registered comparing to licensed individuals. There is usually no requirement for experience and no requirement for schooling beyond the junior high school level. Compulsory high school graduation also applies in some countries.
Professionals in charge of security services, on the other hand, are usually licensed. If the security provider is a company (and not a sole proprietorship), there should generally be at least one professional who meets an extensive set of requirements. The licensing body usually requires two to five years of experience in a relevant role. Often the experience must include a minimum level of responsibility. In some cases, post-secondary education can replace a part of the experience. The Board of Directors may require prospective licensees to present multiple records of prior service. Exam requirements can also be very strict.
Some countries can use any of the various terms for the professional who meets the experience and examination requirements. He or she may be the legal representative of the security services provider. Some other countries use the title “officer” or “director”.
Differences in terminology
The “security officers” have powers that the “security guards” do not have. The security officer is the highest ranking in the hierarchy. Officers have additional tasks such as coordinating security activities. Senior officers may be responsible for designing and coordinating security programs.
In California (USA), the distinction between “guard” and “officer” is less clear. The guards though, are authorized to work for security companies, while security officers usually provide services directly to businesses.
Going up to the ranks of the security industry
There is a geographical element or criterion in the use of any title and there is no clear status difference between a security guard and a security officer. However, there are clear status differences from credential to credential and from job to job. To rise to the highest levels of responsibility a person will definitely need a successful work experience and possibly a level of higher education.